Yes, hearts are at the Heart of Valentine’s Day cards and candy. Charming, yes, but the origin of the heart is intriguing and well-deserving of its place in Valentine’s Day today. In fact, the heart originated with the silphium plant used by the ancients as an aphrodisiac, medicine, spice and, even, birth control measure. The plant contained a heart-shaped flower and was so celebrated it appeared in artwork, including coins, such as this example dated 510-470 BCE.
and this coin from 550-500 BCE:
Unfortunately, the silphium was so popular the ancient Romans used it into extinction…but the image lived on, especially in the increasingly popular playing cards. These cards are from the Middle Ages:
The heart also became a religious symbol:
Flash forward to the mid-1800s and British candy-maker Richard Cadbury, of England’s esteemed Cadbury family, invented the first heart-shaped chocolate box. Around that time in 1866, Esther Howland of Worcester, Massachusetts, who spent her whole life single and living in her family home, created the first Valentine’s Day card in the U.S. Here’s an early version – it led to numerous others full of hearts:
In nearby Boston, Daniel Chase, brother of NECCO wafer inventor Oliver Chase, found a way to print sayings on candy rather than the more cumbersome alternative of the times – wrap the candy in paper with the saying on it. A few decades later and the candy took on a heart-shape, known today as the “Sweetheart Candy.”
Eventually the playing cards, the hearts, and candy came together in a game called “Bridge” where players – usually two sets of couples – played for hours and hours and hours.. starting in the 1920s. So long were these games, the players had no time to eat. The candy bridge mix was one solution. Made of chocolate covered fruits and nuts, it allowed players to eat with one hand and hold the cards with the other including the subject of our Valentine’s Day discussion: the heart. Here’s one of our bridge mix selections:
The illustrious silphium became an image representing fun on greeting cards, boxes, and, of course, candy, its aphrodisiac origins lingering in suggestion only.
Candy and alcohol—delicious, romantic, satisfying. Sugar is the basis of their existence. Both originated as medicine. And both have long been enjoyed at celebrations, rituals, and private intrigues. Wine goes back to 10,000 BCE and evolved through the ages. Around 1531, monks accidentally created sparkling wine, deemed a flaw until the finer varieties became popular 300 years later. Meanwhile, a 16th century Dutch trader removed water from wine to make shipping cheaper, creating, in the process, brandy. For early Irish and Scottish immigrants, wine grapes were nonexistent so they turned to grains instead, making bourbon and rye, later mixed with rock candy, for the 19th century favorite, rock n’ rye. Further north, Colonists’ favored rum and ginger-based beer which often replaced water. Other delectables followed—vodka which didn’t reach U.S. shores until 1911 and Irish Cream, made by 20th century marketers. As for the cocktail, of dubious origin and likely to contain any of the above, punctuated by novelties like olives, first added simply because they were around. All these drinks found a place enrobed, infused or accompanying chocolates in the turn-of-century—a happy marriage for all concerned.
New Years is a time for almonds! And why? Because it’s a time of new beginnings. A time when the light starts to come back and promises of a happier time start to form. SO WHY THE ALMOND? Well…The almond is the first tree to flower in the spring in the Middle East and Mediterranean. For that reason, it has been a symbol of good beginnings for thousands of years, including in the Bible. Sugar coated almonds have been among the favorites and still appear at weddings, Easter baskets, and other events – such as New Years EVE! – welcoming a good beginning. We have a variety of almonds – altogether new olive-shaped cocktail almonds with white chocolate, ancient cinnamon almonds and dragees, Biblical almonds in honey, milk chocolate candy bar with almonds, turn-of-century, and chocolate covered almonds, a favorite at bridge games in the 1920s, ’30s and 50s. Always right for any new beginning, including those that happen every day! 4 oz in a recyclable heat-sealed bag with the history on the label.
Yes, the marshmallow really is from the marshmallow plant. The marshmallow plant, or Althaea officinalis, is a relative of the hollyhock, with pastel-colored, papery flowers.[i] The plant, especially its roots, have a sticky substance that once gave the marshmallow its taste and texture. Today, the root is available as a tea: the mucilage is like a syrup in hot water but thickens into a strangely sweet gel when cool.
The plant originated in Europe and West Asia where the ancients used it to treat coughs and sore throats. The marshmallow was also a sweet where the Ancient Egyptians boiled with sugar or mixed with honey around 2000 BCE.[ii] The result must have been very thick, very sweet, and very hard to make given the stickiness of the plant.
When the marshmallow appeared in the US is unclear, but the marshmallow candy originated in France around 1850 where confectioners blended the mallow root with egg whites, sugar, and water. By the mid-1800s, cookbooks such as the Complete Confectioner, written by Eleanor Parkinson in 1864, contained recipes such as this:
Pate de Guimauve Take of decoction of: marshmallow roots 4 ounces; water 1 gallon.
Boil down to 4 pints and strain; then add gum Arabic 1/2 a pound; refined sugar 2 pounds.
Evaporate to an extract; then take from the fire, stir it quickly with: the whites of 12 eggs previously beaten to a froth; then add, while stirring.[iii]
Within thirty years, marshmallow candy was advertised as a penny candy. The recipes remained unchanged except for one omission: the marshmallow root. In its place, was an ingredient that took the food world by storm: the instant gelatin, which was developed around 1845 by Peter Cooper, the inventor of the Steam Locomotive, who was looking to make glue, instead.
For candy-makers, the gelatin enabled them to do something they probably yearned for: kick the marshmallow plant out of the marshmallow. It was too sticky, too unmanageable, and too expensive to use. They replaced it with gelatin. The marshmallow was fun, tasty and eclectic, effortlessly crossing the lines between candy and other foods. Newspapers had ads for such unlikely possibilities as Pineapple Parfait with Marshmallows, Almond Marshmallow Fudge, and Marshmallow Delight with more ingredients than you’d want to know.[iv]
The marshmallow also appeared deep in the candy bar, enrobed in chocolate, engulfed in caramel, sandwiched in the Girl Scouts’ S’more, and a turn-of-the-century phenomenon, the marshmallow roast. The marshmallow also morphed into the Circus Peanut, really made for the 19th century travelling circus, which became the prototype for -who would believe it? – the 20th century Lucky Charms. One article in 1892 described them as the “Latest Diversion to Amuse the Summer Girl…” and provided detailed advice on how to brown the marshmallow without burning it. “When done they are morsels for the gods,” the author wrote, “resembling in flavor the most excellent meringue, with a delicious nutty and crusty outside. They are a sort of sublimated combination of candy and cake, all in one bite.”
If you are not convinced, the author adds: “Marshmallow roasts are an excellent medium for flirtation, mutual regard between a young lady and a young gentleman being appropriately exhibited by nibbling the marshmallow off of each other’s sticks.” Personally, I never considered the marshmallow that way but it does give you something to think about.
[i] Katie Liesner, “Marshmallow” Sugar and Sweets pp. 430-431
[ii] Kristin Krapp. How Products Are Made: An Illustrated Guide to Product Manufacturing,Volume 3, (Detroit: Gale, 1997), p. 276-277.
[iii] Eleanor Parkinson. The Complete Confectioner, Pastry-Cook, and Baker: Plain and Practical Directions for Making Confectionary and Pastry (J.B. Lippincott, 1864) p. 162.
[iv]The Monroe News Star, “First Annual Cookbook” November 20, 1935, p. 24.
We sent our official candy tasters a variety of chocolates to try …and the verdict is in! Out of two cordials – Irish cream and peach – chocolate covered figs, milk Wilbur Buds, chocolate cayenne pepper balls, hostess mints, and the great outlier of them all chocolate covered gummy bears…the winner is the Hostess Mints!! So what about the Hostess Mints? They’re a classic treat with chocolate enrobed or sandwiched mint. and a favorite of bridge players from the 1920s through 1950s… Among the positive reviews were that the hostess mint was “GREAT! Much better than the Andes mints I’ve had before…” and that “Hostess mints were the classic mint/chocolate with a good mouth feel.” Another taster put it quite elegantly: Just lovely. Really liked these,” and another simply said: “Delicious.”
Our take-away: They’re a keeper!
2 Wilbur Buds. Made in the late 19th century, they were the model Hershey used for making the Kiss. The Bud now uses Daniel Peters’ chocolate – Peters is the Swiss chocolatier who invented milk chocolate with help from his neighbor – Henri Nestle. We carry these already and they’re a hit; in fact, people order them online and contact us specifically to see if we have them. Of course, not everyone will be a fan and it’s always interesting to hear other opinions!
Here is what the tasters thought: “I love the Wilbur buds- the texture is fantastic, as well as the creamy milk chocolate…” and “Overall, I’d say my favorite was the Wilbur buds- I am partial to milk chocolate, but the texture is what really pulled me to them.” One taster told us:: “I was excited to see the Wilbur Buds in the package. Last winter, Hershey Kisses had a manufacturing issue, where the tips were broken. Bakers around the world were upset, as holiday cookies were not perfect. Several bakers switched to Wilbur Buds, but I couldn’t find any locally. I was impressed by the quality of the chocolate, and will definitely look for these!” One taster wanted more: “Wilbur Buds — smooth – really enjoyed these – are there larger versions?” Not as far as I know. The lone descent was: “Wilbur Buds are the classic watery American chocolate.” We welcome all opinions and this was a good one!
Our take-away: We love the Buds and have them in milk and dark. They’re a favorite at our Talks and Tastings series. But, we will remind customers that tastes vary and this chocolate will not be a favorite of everyone.
3. Cordials – Irish Cream and Peach Brandy. If not the highest-rated candy, the history of the cordial is definitely the most intriguing. Originating in Renaissance-period apothecaries, the cordial was an alcohol-based medicine made with fermented fruits, spices, and herbs that helped stimulate the heart and improve circulation. The cordial came to signify a fruit-based beverage, a liqueur, and, eventually, a kind of tempting sweet, where a cherry was tucked into a chocolate shell. No alcohol was involved (but the feel-good effect may have been the same!). Today, some chocolatiers stretch the word “cordial” to include all kinds of alcohol-tasting centers.
We offered our tasters two kinds of cordials – Irish Cream and Peach Brandy. Said one taster, “While I’m not usually a fan of Irish Creme, these were delightful!” Another said, “Really like the Irish cream; an interesting crunch to the shell. The Peach brandy was yummy and had a nice crunch to it as well. Is it real alcohol or flavoring? The taste of the alcohol was quite accurate.” Another taster said: “The cordials are my favorite. I would have liked them better with a creamier chocolate but I have a thing about that. I enjoyed the flavor of the cordial with the chocolate.
Our favorite critique was definitely this one – truly visceral and experiential: “The Peach Brandy Cordials. Definitely not what I was expecting! I bit into the first one, and was amazed as the brandy center poured over my tongue. As I enjoyed it, I realized that there was a crisp inner shell that had separated the liquid from the chocolate….The Irish Cream was very deliberately allowed to melt in my mouth, revealing the crisp sugar shell …. Both ways of eating this candy were exquisitely enjoyable, and I would need many many more samples to decide which way is my favorite way to eat them!”
Not all were a positive: “The Irish cream cordial was- okay… not my favorite. The Peach Brandy cordial was much better than the Irish cream, but still not my favorite.”
Our take-away: The Irish Creams stay…we’ll consider the Peach Brandy for later.
4. Cayenne Pepper Savouries.A natural fit – the cayenne pepper and the chocolate were both eaten by the indigenous people of Central America and the Southwest. Thousands of years later, they appeared in this modern sweet, the union of two foods the ancients would never have imaged. The reviews were basically positive, depending on whether the taster liked Cayenne pepper. “The cayenne pepper chocolates were very intriguing! Just the right amount of spice, so I enjoyed that.” Along the same lines, we see: “I started with the Cayenne Pepper Savories. The rich chocolate flavor pulls you in, and then the heat kicks in. Not so unbearable as to be unpleasant, but it begs to be taken seriously. These are a real favorite for me!!!”
Others were less inclined: Cayenne pepper would have been better with creamier chocolate. I was surprised at the crunchiness. It was a fun change, though, like the Mexican candies I remember,” and a non-pepper taster dutifully tried the chocolate, but it was a no-go: “Not at all a fan of spicy chocolates; I did try one; but would not buy them.” For the record, we at True Treats had an informal Cayenne Pepper tasting and the results were the same. Love cayenne, love the chocolate.
Our take-away: The cayenne pepper is a relatively new candy flavoring…albeit an old spice. So why not? People like them and they add a new dimension to the chocolate line and they date back to the Native Americans.
5. Chocolate covered gummy candies. Gummy candy, circa 1920s, are based on the ancient Turkish delight. German-made, they were originally called “Rubber Candy” for the texture. The German word for “rubber” is “gummi.” The chocolate covered Turkish delight has long been a hit in most places (especially England), so the chocolate-covered gummy bear seemed like a natural extension. But the reviews were mixed. The thumbs up tasters said: “These were delightful! The gummi bears were fresh under the coating of chocolate, and I found myself devouring the entire sample in short order,” and “The chocolate was less intense than that in the Cayenne savories, but still rich. Another winner!” Then the opinions started to wan. “The chocolate gummy bears were very strange, but they tasted good! I think kids would love them…” then, “Okay, just not a fan of gummies,” and leaving off with: “Chocolate gummy bears were not my favorite. They reminded me of the jellied chocolates that get left in the box because nobody like them.”
Our take-away: We don’t carry the chocolate-covered gummies now and probably won’t. Not enough enthusiasm.
6. Chocolate Fig. The fig has it all!It’s an ancient fruit, rich in symbolism, a favorite of the Colonists, and now thrives in North America. Knowing that chocolatiers of the late 19th and 2oth centuries coated all sorts of fruits and nuts in chocolate, we figured why not… The feedback was a mixed bag. “The chocolate fig was DIVINE- I love figs- so coating it in chocolate was fantastic,” said one taster and another agreed, sharinga recommendation we heard several times: “Really liked this. A little large, so had to share it. Are there smaller figs in life? However, it was delicious – and was thinking this would be a lovely gift in a box of 6 or so.” Again, we heard: “I think of this batch, the Hostess mint and the fig were my favorite (although as I said the fig was too large for one serving for me)” and “Chocolate figs were too big to eat comfortably. I would have liked a smaller version with creamier chocolate.
Others were less positive: “I decided to face my fears next, and try the Chocolate Fig. To be honest, I never have had a fig before, and I wasn’t sure what to expect. The chewiness of the fig was a challenge, as it made the Chocolate flake off with every bite. I’m sure that, historically speaking, this is right on the money. That being said, however, the texture of the fig combined with the Chocolate coming off and melting in my hand made this less than enjoyable” and “My least favorite was the chocolate fig.”
Our take-away: We can’t turn away from this candy for its rich historic value and flavor. Next step: we’ll try a smaller size fruit for the dipping.
We then asked out tasters if they had other thoughts. Here is what we got: “I have a favorite from childhood; but don’t have a name for either — they were purchased individually from a penny candy store. One was a small chocolate with a soft maple interior; the other a sort of “rice” cake; although I do wonder if that is what it really was made of. We kids would buy one of each, squash the maple candy onto the cake and pop it in our mouths all in one bite. Your store already carries many of my childhood’s favorites otherwise.” Thanks! I’ve heard stories about the rice cake and will try to track it down. As for the maple…very interesting. I’ll ask our maple-maker!
This is interesting for us to hear: “I was curious as to the ingredients in the chocolates – such as is there corn syrup or do you label the original boxes with the chocolate of origin? I know many folks who are careful about the country of origin or company that they buy chocolates from because of child labor, processing or pesticides, etc.” A good point, but not what we do. Roughly 90% is made in the USA, overwhelmingly in small commercial kitchens. BUT – we look at history. Items such as corn syrup? A native North American sugar, used by the Native Americans in various forms. If you’re using processed sugar, why not corn? Country of origin? Mostly everything we eat originated elsewhere and in most cases, such as coffee and chocolate, grows far outside their natural environment. I get the point, though.
Here’s two more: “I used to love Cherry Mash as a kid but may find them too sweet now. I liked the Chunky bars, too. I grew up near a small candy store that made their own and loved their caramels and chocolates …. At St. Patrick’s Day he would make lime candy snakes and at Easter he would make sugar eggs with scenes inside.” Lime candy snakes! Wow! Finally, one taster commented: “I …want to try pulled creams and all the liqueur chocolates. I love maple candy (the real kind) too. It is fun to try things I have read about, like the Turkish Delight from Narnia. My sister-in-law brought some back from Turkey and it was great to satisfy curiosity.” We sell them right here. Online. Why wait?
Taken, in part, from “Sweet as Sin” (Prometheus, 2016)
Strawberry is one of the most popular candy flavors in the nation. It’s in chewing gum, hard candies, jelly beans, taffy, Caramel Creams. Strawberry leaves make a healthy and delicious tea and chocolate covered strawberries are unbeatable. Yet, the most intriguing aspect of the strawberry is its story, involving three continents, international spies, life at the high seas, and science.
Originally, North American strawberries were tiny little nuggets, a humble yet wild plant. They held special meaning for Native Americans because they were the first to produce fruit in spring. No part was forgotten, overlooked or thrown away. Depending on the tribe, they boiled the leaves into a tea, used the root to relieve stomach problems, and ate the fruit for health and pleasure.[i]
Thomas Jefferson, whose botanical prowess is legendary, grew strawberries in his garden. In 1767, he wrote in the Garden Book that “100 fill half a pint,” which indicates how remarkably small these berries were.[ii]
Three events occurred to change the legacy of the strawberry. First, an American strawberry, known in the scientific sounding name of F. virginiana or Virginia strawberry, appeared in France in the 1600s and traveled around Europe from garden to garden, without much fanfare.[iii] How it got there exactly no one seems to know, but it showed up in a manual of botany complied for Louis XIII in 1624.[iv]
A second event occurred in 1771 – about 150 years later. King Louis XIV of France sent a spy, Lieutenant Colonel Frézier, to Chile to gather information about the Spanish who had gained control over the nation. The Royal family was enamored with Frézier because of a book he wrote as an infantryman in the royal service. In it, he explored the many possibilities of munitions, including a favorite for celebratory events: fireworks. His book on the subject became a standard of the time.[v]
By the time he left for Chile, Frézier was an experienced and enthusiastic officer and an excellent spy. He hobnobbed with his targets, posing as a merchant sea caption and visited garrisons, forts, and armaments as an eager tourist. He befriended Spanish officers, observed the native inhabitants, and studied the native terrain, drafting detailed maps to bring home. All of this he recorded in copious notes which later became a popular book, read throughout Europe.
And there, among riff-raff and royalty, Frézier discovered the Chilean strawberry. The plant had one distinguishing quality compared to its European and North American cousins. As Frézier put it in a 1917 English translation: “The fruit is as big as a walnut or a hen’s egg…” In other words, unlike the petite varieties at home, the Chilean strawberry had heft. In addition, the flowers were enormous, the runners long, and the berries didn’t bow down like other varieties, but thrust their seeded chins up to the sun.[vi] As for the downside – it was less flavorful than the other varieties.
Regardless, Frézier nursed the strawberry on the 160-day voyage back to France, where he, and it, survived storms, churning waves, and the threat of pirates. It’s worth noting that the French enjoyed pirating as much as anyone else but, due to time constraints, resisted the temptation to target a small, Portuguese fishing boat and, most likely, others.
Once the strawberry was settled in France, safe among botanists and gardeners, a third event happened that made today’s strawberry complete: it co-mingled with the F. virginiana. How exactly that happened no one seems to know, but the prevailing thought is the union was accidental. The culprit could have been a French botanist, perhaps Frézier himself,[vii] or George Clifford,[viii] a botanist and director of the Netherlands East India Company. Anyway, someone put the large, yet relatively tasteless Chilean variety next to the sweet Virginia berry and soon an amazing hybrid was born – a big, robust, and tasty fruit.
One more note about Frézier: his name derived from the French word “fraise” meaning “strawberry.” His ancestor Julius de Berry gave the King of France a gift of strawberries in 916. As a thank you, the king knighted and changed his name from Berry to Fraise, later to become Frézier. As for the coat of arms –the king gave him three stalks of strawberries. Whether Frézier was aware of this or not, is anyone’s guess. He never mentioned it in his writings or referred to it in any way.[ix]
The Hovey Influence
In the early nineteenth century, while strawberry cultivation was booming in Europe, in the US it trotted along. Around Boston, they were primarily grown in gardens by amateurs who hoped for the best. In New York, strawberries were more or less dropped in sandy soil in fields and mountainsides and left to fend for themselves. In North Carolina, amateurs wrote articles and experimented with the plant, but not much came of it.[x] Other efforts to create hybrids brought so-so results.
In 1834, Boston horticulturist Charles Hovey (1810-1887) changed all that. Hovey was born in Cambridge in 1810, which was at that time a rural town.[xii] Nearby Boston, however, was a center of horticultural activity. The influential Massachusetts Horticultural Society was newly formed, marking the separation between horticulture and agriculture. It’s still around today. Hovey, whose father owned a grocery and property in Cambridge when Hovey was a boy, went on to start a nursery, a seed operation, and the nation’s first horticultural magazine which ran for 40-some years.[xiii]
During this time, Hovey cross-pollenated a number of varieties to come up with the first cultivated American strawberry aptly named the “Hovey”. At the Massachusetts Horticultural Society exhibition in 1835 strawberry lovers were dumb-struck by the size and quality of the fruit. It was deemed “perfect” and viewed as the first worthy cultivated strawberry, the one the nation was waiting for. In 1840 a dozen of the plants sold for the vast sum of $5.00.[xiv]
The Hovey remained a hit through the late 1800s.[xv] In 1894 the American Naturalist proclaimed that the Hovey strawberry
“revolutionized strawberry growing in this country…American varieties appeared from year to year and the greater part of them have come directly or indirectly from the Hovey…”
Call it irony, call it fate, but the DNA of the fabulous strawberry is unknown as Hovey lost the markers indicating the cross of the berry.[xvi] Regardless, even today, botanists agree that the orphan plant was a star and with it Hovey created the cultivated strawberry market. Every strawberry ice cream, candy, pie, or tea is evidence that the Hovey strawberry triumphs today.
The universe of “retro” candy is a large one, spanning over 150+ years – Wax Lips (early 1900s), Good n’ Plenty (1893), NECCO Wafers (1847) and such sensations as Fruit Slice Gum (1960s) and Turkish Taffy (around 1931)… to name a few. But wedged into this clutter of wrappers, flavors and advertising stints are candies long forgotten but still among us – alive, well, and ever fascinating. Here is a sample of some of them:
Cherry Cocktail (1926). Still made by the family-owned Idaho Spud Candy Company which opened in 1901. The candy bar is not your everyday cherry cordial, but a “whole maraschino cherry crème center buried in a mixture of ground peanuts and milk chocolate” the company says. The result – no classic smooth, chocolate coating but a textured mound of chocolate.
Pulled Creams (around 1840s). If you like cake frosting, you will love these – smooth, creamy and oh-so-sweet. While the Kentucky-based shop started making these sweets in 1921, they originated in the mid-1800s with the first penny candies. By the way – those early candies gave working class kids their first taste of affluence, as the low prices offered them an opportunity to enter a store and buy something. The sweet promise of success.
Contraband. Actually, these peppermint-molasses candies (late 1800s) have always been legal and were a favorite hard candy. In 1935, the candy store owner was enamored by the Prohibition-era G-men, James Cagney and bootleggers. Like many others of the time, he gave children broken pieces of candy as the passed by to school. Of course, candy was forbidden in school so, in the Prohibition-era spirit, he named the candy “Contraband.” (His other hard candies were called…bullets).
A few weeks ago, I posted that History.com interviewed me via a number of written questions.The editor said I could share the full Candy Cane Q&A once the article, with my quotes, was released. She also said I need to give them credit…which, as you can imagine, is a pleasure.
So…here it is…
What do you know about the origins of the candy cane?
The first candy cane most likely took shape in 17th century Europe when people were enjoying pulled sugars, the parent to today’s candy sticks. At that time, somewhere in Germany, an unknown person added a hook to the stick. Some believe that person was a choirmaster who gave the stick to fidgety choirboys to placate them during services: a more palatable form of enticement than the common mode of whacking them with a switch. The board complained – sweets were not appropriate at so solemn a place as church. So, the choirmaster added a hook, making the stick resemble a staff, a religious reference that would calm the board’s concerns. This story does have credibility, but it’s just as likely Germans added the hook to hang the sticks from trees, alongside cookies, fruits and other treats. Just about everyone agrees that today’s candy cane appeared in the U.S. around 1847 in Wooster Ohio, made by August Imgard, a German-Swedish immigrant.
I’ve read different accounts–that the “J” shape stands for Jesus, that they were made to look like a shepherds crook. What’s your opinion on the shape, and the red and white stripes?
The “J” had nothing to do with Jesus (sorry!). As mentioned, it was a representative of a Shepherd’s staff or more likely a hook to attach it to the tree. I believe the “J” was an urban legend, so to speak. Similarly, the stripe appeared in the mid- to late-1800s as a decoration in candy sticks and canes…and barbershop poles! In other words, the stripe was the brainchild of marketing. Legends of stories about the candy cane abounded, such as it being a secret code among persecuted Christians in Germany or England in the seventeenth century (both were Christian nations at the time, so why be secret?); a secret language among the Christian faithful depending on the stripes (three stripes represented the trinity, one Jesus’ sacrifice); some kind of secret hand-shake, what exactly, I’m not sure; and the more general role of the stripe as the blood of Jesus.
Why do you think candy canes have endured all these years–in other words, why do we love them so much?
Early on, the cane’s popularity was limited as it tended to break when candy-makers added the crook. Bob McCormick, a candy-maker in the 1920s, reportedly solved that problem with help from a Catholic priest, Gregory Keller, who happened to be his brother. At that time, McCormick was losing 22 percent of his candy canes to breakage. So, Bob’s brother invented a machine that would automatically put a hook in the candy cane, leaving the stick intact. The machine was a success and today Bob’s Candies has become one of the world’s largest candy cane maker. The candy cane is portable, relatively neat (compared to, say, chocolate) , affordable and tasty…all of which adds to it popularity. Besides, the candy cane’s presence on store shelves is limited – only one or to months – which enhances its value – and has positive associations.
By the way, “Rigby’s Reliable Candy Teacher,” published in 1919, offers this advice for avoiding breakage:
“CANDY CANES FOR CHRISTMAS”
“Run out a batch of any flavor stick candy, usually peppermint and lemon are the best sellers, spin these sticks any size you wish and in cutting these cut off at angles. Now have your helper roll them so as to keep them round and when they begin to get cold crook the angle, then set them to one side to harden. Your helper’s rolling them until they become cold keeps them from getting flat on one side which affects the sale of them greatly. It is best when spinning these out to make one end of the stick smaller than the other, then place the crook on the large end and have the small end of the end of the cane. Candy canes can be made in any flavor or color, or any size desired.”
How did they become so associated with Christmas?
Most holiday candies – Christmas, Easter, and so on, are a product of marketing. In the early 1800s, for example, Christmas was celebrated with a meal. On the back of the Industrial Revolution came marketing: food-makers started to create foods people would enjoy for their own sake (not health or medicinal value, for example) – and tap marketing resources to get the word out. Existing candies were marketed as Christmas candy with slight variations. The festive art candy, for example, started on British seaside boardwalks with a picture of a hotel or resort on the candy, sold as souvenirs.
In the end, though, Christmas is about family, fun, and the warmth of ritual. The candy cane and others fits right in!
Valentine’s Day sweets are older and more remarkable than taste reveals, some originating thousands of years ago to celebrations of fertility and sex. One example is the quintessential heart-shaped candy box.
The heart shape, which obviously looks nothing like an actual heart, likely evolved from the now extinct silphium plant used by fifth century Romans as a seasoning, medicine and birth control measure. Its pod was heart-shaped, lending itself to the symbolic heart of today.
After appearing in everything from 14th and 15th century artwork to16th century playing cards, it found a place in Valentine’s Day sweets in 1861. That’s when Richard Cadbury, of England’s Cadbury family, one of the world’s preeminent chocolate makers, invented the heart-shaped candy box.
As for its contents: enrobed chocolates, whether stuffed with cherries, caramels, or nougat, were all the rage for turn-of-century suitors. They were more than a gift of love – they were a gift of sex, or hopes for sex, anyway. Even plain chocolate was sexualized by rose-shaped and other molds.
The more romantic, Conversation Hearts evolved from a machine pharmacist Oliver Chase developed in 1847 to cut pills (and candy) in predictable slices. The result was the NECCO Wafer. About 20 years later, his brother Daniel made a machine to stamp sayings on the candy, then called “wedding candy.” The messages shrunk and the candy morphed into today’s Valentine’s Day classics.
Perhaps the most innocent of the Valentine’s Day line-up are the hard candies – whether the heart-shaped lollipops or the ornate balls placed in decorative packaging. These resulted from the boiled sugars – used simultaneously as medicines and treats. They found a home in grandmothers’ purses and candy bowls of the mid-1900s and remain a symbol of love today.
As for the gummies, jellies, and other sweets that have had a welcome invasion into Valentine’s Day gift-giving. These are as commercial as Valentine’s Day itself, as food-makers morphed their everyday treats into Valentine’s Day specialties, always welcome and, for the most part, in good taste.
We cannot let June slip by without acknowledging Black Music Month and the remarkable contribution of black musicians to our culture, our history, and, dare I say, our candy. Here are three of our favorites:
James P. Johnson. In 1894 and the great African American musician and composer was born. Classically trained, he went on to bridge the gap between ragtime and jazz, as back-up player for such greats as Ethel Waters and Bessie Smith, mentor to Duke Ellington and Fats Waller, among many others, and an accompanist on over 400 recordings, and colleag
ue of George Gershwin. One of his most enduring compositions, was the song, the Charleston, likely written in 1913. The popularity snowballed a 1920s hit. The flappers adopted the song and the dance, where it was featured in images of speakeasies with overflowing and deliciously illegal cocktails. In 1925, candy-maker Donley Cross, invented a candy named for the dance and the song: Charleston Chew. Hear the Charleston. Buy a Bag of Prohibition Candy and get an old time blues CD free.
Robert Johnson: Robert Johnson was born in 1911 in an environment rife with poverty, hunger and illiteracy and the KKK. Where Johnson got his start in music is anyone’s guess, but it grew at the Saturday night dances where he watched the first generation of blues masters, such as Willie Brown and Charley Patton, play. Eventually, Johnson took to the road, playing in juke joints and other places. Robert Johnson’s first recording was on November 23, 1936: Twenty-nine more followed the next year. When he died at 27, Johnson left behind a legacy that that changed music forever. One song, “It’s So Hot” was about the Hot Tamale (AKA sex). So popular was the Hot Tamale culture, Just Born, makers of the Peep, turned it into a favorite hot-and-tasty candy. Hear It’s So Hot. Buy a bag of Hot Tamales and get an old time Blues CD free.
Billie Holiday: Billie Holiday, born in 1915, was raised in an impoverished section of Baltimore. She spent spending two years in reform school, ran errands in a brothel and worked as a prostitute. Eventually, she wound up singing in a speakeasy which launched a remarkable, international career, breaking barriers as a black woman working with an all-white orchestra. Tragically she suffered from alcohol and drug addiction which landed her in jail. When released months later, talent agent Ed Fishman convinced her to give a comeback concert at Carnegie Hall. Holiday thought no one would come. Instead, the concert was sold out. Eventually, her addiction killed her but her achievements were a model for generations. Her song, “Sugar” is a classic. Hear Sugar. Buy a bag of Prohibition Toffees and get an old-time Blues CD free.
The potato candy is quickly rising to the best seller list at the shop. Our customers have two reactions to this Americanized German immigrant. One is: “What is potato candy?” The other: “My grandmother use to make this.” So, let’s address this fascinating candy:
What is potato candy? Potato candy came to the U.S., somewhere around the turn of the century, reportedly from Germany. It arrived in recipe form – possibly memorized rather than written – with immigrants. The candy consisted of two main ingredients: potato and sugar. One it hit the American shores, it took on peanut butter – the delicious tan swirl that gives potato candy its unique form.
My grandmother use to make this. The potato candy soon became popular among the Irish of Appalachia who were unable to afford more expensive candy, such as chocolates. Potatoes were readily available, the candy was easy to make, and it tasted great. Generations that followed continued to make potato candy, passing the recipe down orally.
If you’re interested in trying potato candy, let us know. We whip up a batch weekly so it’s always fresh.